The dyer’s madder “Rubia tinctorum” is the best-known dyeing plant, from the roots is obtained one of the most stable colors in nature. Madder has been the main source of red coloring for wall paintings, textile fibers and leathers since ancient times. It was the most common color in European civilizations, but also in India and Persia, used by the ancient Egyptians to dye linen and by the Romans too. It is mentioned in the works of Hippocrates, Theophrastus and Dioscorides which mentions its cultivation in Tuscany. We find it in the analysis of the colors of Renaissance tapestries and in the dyeing works of ancient Pompei.